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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1223; doi:10.3390/ijms17081223

Incretin-Based Therapies for Diabetic Complications: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Evidence

Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan
Diabetic Neuropathy Project, Department of Sensory and Motor Systems, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lu Cai, Yuehui Wang and Zhiguo Zhang
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2016 / Accepted: 25 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1007 KB, uploaded 29 July 2016]   |  


An increase in the rates of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetic complications is a global concern. Glycemic control is important to prevent the development and progression of diabetic complications. Various classes of anti-diabetic agents are currently available, and their pleiotropic effects on diabetic complications have been investigated. Incretin-based therapies such as dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are now widely used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. A series of experimental studies showed that incretin-based therapies have beneficial effects on diabetic complications, independent of their glucose-lowering abilities, which are mediated by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress properties. Based on these findings, clinical studies to assess the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1RA on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications have been performed. Several but not all studies have provided evidence to support the beneficial effects of incretin-based therapies on diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. We herein discuss the experimental and clinical evidence of incretin-based therapy for diabetic complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: incretin; DPP-4; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); GLP-1; diabetes; diabetic complications; cardiovascular disease incretin; DPP-4; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); GLP-1; diabetes; diabetic complications; cardiovascular disease

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kawanami, D.; Matoba, K.; Sango, K.; Utsunomiya, K. Incretin-Based Therapies for Diabetic Complications: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Evidence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1223.

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