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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 993; doi:10.3390/ijms17070993

Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

1
College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
2
Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charles Brennan
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 23 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2399 KB, uploaded 23 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: sugar beet molasses; polyphenols; cytotoxicity; Caco-2; apoptosis sugar beet molasses; polyphenols; cytotoxicity; Caco-2; apoptosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, M.; Zhao, Z.; Yu, S. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 993.

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