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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1181; doi:10.3390/ijms17071181

High Morphologic Plasticity of Microglia/Macrophages Following Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats

Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine; Institute for Brain Research, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hangkong Road 13#, Wuhan 430030, China
Department of Shang-Han, Clinical College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tan-Hua-Lin Road 1, Wuhan 430061, China
Laboratory of Medical Molecular and Cellular Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, China
Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kurt A. Jellinger
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8410 KB, uploaded 21 July 2016]   |  


As current efforts have limited effects on the clinical outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the mechanisms including microglia/macrophages that involved inflammation need further investigation. Here, 0.4 units of collagenase VII were injected into the left caudate putamen (CPu) to duplicate ICH rat models. In the brains of ICH rats, microglia/macrophages, the nearest cells to the hemorrhagic center, were observed as ameboid and Prussian-blue positive. Furthermore, the ameboid microglia/macrophages were differentiation (CD) 68 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) positive, and neither CD206 nor chitinase3-like 3 (Ym1) positive, suggesting their strong abilities of phagocytosis and secretion of IL-1β. According to the distance to the hemorrhagic center, we selected four areas—I, II, III, and IV—to analyze the morphology of microglia/macrophages. The processes decreased successively from region I to region IV. Microglia/macrophages in region IV had no processes. The processes in region I were radially distributed, however, they showed obvious directivity towards the hemorrhagic center in regions II and III. Region III had the largest density of compactly arrayed microglia/macrophages. All these in vivo results present the high morphologic plasticity of microglia/macrophages and their functions in the pathogenesis of ICHs. View Full-Text
Keywords: microglia; intracerebral hemorrhage; interleukin-1β; interleukin-10 microglia; intracerebral hemorrhage; interleukin-1β; interleukin-10

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yang, S.-S.; Lin, L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.; Chu, J.; Zhang, T.; Ning, L.-N.; Shi, Y.; Fang, Y.-Y.; Zeng, P.; Wang, J.-Z.; Qiu, M.-Y.; Tian, Q. High Morphologic Plasticity of Microglia/Macrophages Following Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1181.

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