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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1166; doi:10.3390/ijms17071166

Tissue-Specific Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation

1
Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
2
Biochemistry Department, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eiveniu 4, LT-50009 Kaunas, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Laura Colombo
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 8 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tocopherols and Tocotrienols: Metabolism and Properties)
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Abstract

A multivitamin and mineral supplementation study of 6 weeks was conducted with male and female mice. The control group received a standard dose of vitamins and minerals of 1× the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI), whereas a second group received 3× RDI. A third group received a high dose of vitamin E (25× RDI), close to the upper limit of toxicity (UL), but still recommended and considered to be harmless and beneficial. The high dose of vitamin E caused a number of beneficial, but also adverse effects. Different biomarkers of tissue toxicity, oxidative stress related processes and inflammation were determined. These biomarkers did not change in plasma and erythrocytes to a large extent. In the liver of male mice, some beneficial effects were observed by a lower concentration of several biomarkers of inflammation. However, in the kidney of male mice, a number of biomarkers increased substantially with the higher dose of vitamin E, indicating tissue toxicity and an increased level of inflammation. Since this dose of vitamin E, which is lower than the UL, cause some adverse effects, even after a short exposure period, further studies are required to reconsider the UL for vitamin E. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin E; α-tocopherol; oxidative stress; MCP-1; PAI-1; resistin; Il-6; TNF-α vitamin E; α-tocopherol; oxidative stress; MCP-1; PAI-1; resistin; Il-6; TNF-α
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jansen, E.; Viezeliene, D.; Beekhof, P.; Gremmer, E.; Ivanov, L. Tissue-Specific Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1166.

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