Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia
AbstractA bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp) regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances gene and protein expression of enzymes involved in the steroidogenic cascade. d-Asp also directly affects spermatogonial mitotic activity. In spermatogonial GC-1 cells, d-Asp induces phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT serine-threonine kinase proteins, and stimulates expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and aurora kinase B (AURKB). Further stimulation of spermatogonial GC-1 cell proliferation might come from estradiol/estrogen receptor β (ESR2) interaction. d-Asp modulates androgen and estrogen levels as well as the expression of their receptors in the rat epididymis by acting on mRNA levels of Srd5a1 and Cyp19a1 enzymes, hence suggesting involvement in spermatozoa maturation. View Full-Text
Scifeed alert for new publicationsNever miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
- Get alerts for new papers matching your research
- Find out the new papers from selected authors
- Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
- Define your Scifeed now
Di Fiore, M.M.; Santillo, A.; Falvo, S.; Longobardi, S.; Chieffi Baccari, G. Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1127.
Di Fiore MM, Santillo A, Falvo S, Longobardi S, Chieffi Baccari G. Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(7):1127.Chicago/Turabian Style
Di Fiore, Maria M.; Santillo, Alessandra; Falvo, Sara; Longobardi, Salvatore; Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella. 2016. "Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 7: 1127.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.