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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1027; doi:10.3390/ijms17071027

Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity

1
Department of Chemical and Physical Properties of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10 Str., 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Institute of Life Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Route du Rawyl 47, 1950 Sion, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Esra Capanoglu
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macro- and Micro-nutrient Antioxidants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1185 KB, uploaded 29 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The antioxidant activity of flaxseed protein hydrolysates obtained using five different enzymes was evaluated. Proteins were isolated from flaxseed cake and were separately treated with papain, trypsin, pancreatin, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined as the percentage of cleaved peptide bonds using a spectrophotometric method with o-phthaldialdehyde. The distribution of the molecular weights (MW) of the hydrolysis products was profiled using Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) separations. The antioxidant activities of the protein isolate and hydrolysates were probed for their radical scavenging activity using 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS•+) and photochemiluminescence (PCL-ACL) assays, and for their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ability to bind Fe2+. The hydrolysates were more effective as antioxidants than the protein isolate in all systems. The PCL-ACL values of the hydrolysates ranged from 7.2 to 35.7 μmol Trolox/g. Both the FRAP and ABTS•+ scavenging activity differed among the hydrolysates to a lower extent, with the ranges of 0.20–0.24 mmol Fe2+/g and 0.17–0.22 mmol Trolox/g, respectively. The highest chelating activity (71.5%) was noted for the pancreatin hydrolysate. In general, the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase and pancreatin had the highest antioxidant activity, even though their DH (15.4% and 29.3%, respectively) and the MW profiles of the peptides varied substantially. The O2•− scavenging activity and the ability to chelate Fe2+ of the Flavourzyme hydrolysate were lower than those of the Alcalase and pancreatin hydrolysates. Papain was the least effective in releasing the peptides with antioxidant activity. The study showed that the type of enzyme used for flaxseed protein hydrolysis determines the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates. View Full-Text
Keywords: flaxseed cake; enzymatic hydrolysis; protein hydrolysates; proteases; antioxidant activity flaxseed cake; enzymatic hydrolysis; protein hydrolysates; proteases; antioxidant activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karamać, M.; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, A.; Kulczyk, A. Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1027.

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