Next Article in Journal
ROS and Brain Gliomas: An Overview of Potential and Innovative Therapeutic Strategies
Next Article in Special Issue
Electric Signals Regulate the Directional Migration of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells (OPCs) via β1 Integrin
Previous Article in Journal
The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cancer Stem Cells: The Potential Targets of Chinese Medicines and Their Active Compounds
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 982; doi:10.3390/ijms17060982

Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration

1,2,3,†
,
1,2,3,†
,
1,2,3
,
1,2,3
,
1,2,3
,
1,2,3
,
1,2,3,* and 4,*
1
Chongqing Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing 401147, China
2
College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147, China
3
Chongqing Municipal Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering of Higher Education, Chongqing 401147, China
4
Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
These authors contributed equally to this study and share first authorship.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wenbin Deng
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [260 KB, uploaded 21 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells) commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous). The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells), early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium), using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration), timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury), single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: stem cells; stem cell therapy; optimizing strategy; tissue repair; tissue regeneration stem cells; stem cell therapy; optimizing strategy; tissue repair; tissue regeneration
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, S.; Zhou, J.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Chen, J.; Hu, B.; Song, J.; Zhang, Y. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 982.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top