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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 968; doi:10.3390/ijms17060968

Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Three Types of Rat Adipose Tissue

1
Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, 185, DongHu Road, Wuhan 430071, China
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China
These authors contribute equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick C. Y. Woo
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 30 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is the most classical technique in the field of gene expression study. This method requires an appropriate reference gene to normalize mRNA levels. In this study, the expression stability of four frequently-used reference genes in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal beige adipose tissue (iBeAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) from obese and lean rats were evaluated by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Based on the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines, the two most stable reference genes were recommended in each type of adipose tissue. Two target genes were applied to test the stability of the reference genes. The geNorm and NormFinder results revealed that GAPDH and 36B4 exhibited the highest expression stabilities in eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin had the highest expression stabilities in iBeAT and BAT. According to the results of the BestKeeper analysis, 36B4 was the most stable gene in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, in terms of the coefficient of variance. In terms of the coefficient of correlation, GAPDH, 36B4 and β-actin were the most stable genes in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, respectively. Additionally, expected results and statistical significance were obtained using a combination of two suitable reference genes for data normalization. In conclusion, 36B4 and GAPDH, in combination, are the best reference genes for eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin are two most suitable reference genes for both iBeAT and BAT. We recommend using these reference genes accordingly. View Full-Text
Keywords: reference gene; geNorm; NormFinder; BestKeeper; rat adipose tissue reference gene; geNorm; NormFinder; BestKeeper; rat adipose tissue
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Zhang, W.-X.; Fan, J.; Ma, J.; Rao, Y.-S.; Zhang, L.; Yan, Y.-E. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Three Types of Rat Adipose Tissue. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 968.

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