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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 955; doi:10.3390/ijms17060955

Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

1
Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
2
Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
4
Department of Applied Cosmetology, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung 821, Taiwan
5
Degree Program of Cosmetology and Health Care, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung 821, Taiwan
6
Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
7
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
8
Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
9
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
10
Center for Stem Cell Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
11
Biorefinery & Bioprocess Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan
12
Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
13
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
14
Department of Cosmeceutics, College of Biopharmaceutical and Food Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
15
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
16
Division of Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea
17
Department of Internal Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
18
Department of Safety Health and Environment, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan 717, Taiwan
19
Department of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
20
Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
21
Center for Infectious Disease and Cancer Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Segura-Carretero
Received: 17 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Research of Functional and Nutraceutical Food)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2942 KB, uploaded 16 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE) from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements. View Full-Text
Keywords: enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE); Haematococcus pluvialis; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA); doxycycline enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE); Haematococcus pluvialis; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA); doxycycline
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Chou, H.-Y.; Lee, C.; Pan, J.-L.; Wen, Z.-H.; Huang, S.-H.; Lan, C.-W.J.; Liu, W.-T.; Hour, T.-C.; Hseu, Y.-C.; Hwang, B.H.; Cheng, K.-C.; Wang, H.-M.D. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 955.

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