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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 945; doi:10.3390/ijms17060945

Potential Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets of MicroRNAs in Human Gastric Cancer

1
Department of Nursing, Chang-Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
2
Department of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi 613, Taiwan
3
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
4
Department of Dermatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
5
Liver Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Y-h. Taguchi
Received: 2 April 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA Regulation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [330 KB, uploaded 16 June 2016]

Abstract

Human gastric cancer (GC) is characterized by a high incidence and mortality rate, largely because it is normally not identified until a relatively advanced stage owing to a lack of early diagnostic biomarkers. Gastroscopy with biopsy is the routine method for screening, and gastrectomy is the major therapeutic strategy for GC. However, in more than 30% of GC surgical patients, cancer has progressed too far for effective medical resection. Thus, useful biomarkers for early screening or detection of GC are essential for improving patients’ survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in tumorigenesis. They contribute to gastric carcinogenesis by altering the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Because of their stability in tissues, serum/plasma and other body fluids, miRNAs have been suggested as novel tumor biomarkers with suitable clinical potential. Recently, aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been identified and tested for clinical application in the management of GC. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles determined with miRNA microarrays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing approaches could be used to establish sample specificity and to identify tumor type. Here, we provide an up-to-date summary of tissue-based GC-associated miRNAs, describing their involvement and that of their downstream targets in tumorigenic and biological processes. We examine correlations among significant clinical parameters and prognostic indicators, and discuss recurrence monitoring and therapeutic options in GC. We also review plasma/serum-based, GC-associated, circulating miRNAs and their clinical applications, focusing especially on early diagnosis. By providing insights into the mechanisms of miRNA-related tumor progression, this review will hopefully aid in the identification of novel potential therapeutic targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker; prognosis; gastric cancer; diagnosis; microRNAs biomarker; prognosis; gastric cancer; diagnosis; microRNAs
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsai, M.-M.; Wang, C.-S.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Huang, H.-W.; Chi, H.-C.; Lin, Y.-H.; Lu, P.-H.; Lin, K.-H. Potential Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets of MicroRNAs in Human Gastric Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 945.

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