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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 941; doi:10.3390/ijms17060941

Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels as Functional Markers of Mature Neurons in Human Olfactory Neuroepithelial Cells: Implications for the Study of Neurodevelopment in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

1
Laboratorio de Neurofarmacología, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Calzada México-Xochimilco No. 101, Col. San Lorenzo-Huipulco, Mexico City 14370, Mexico
2
Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
3
Departamento de Neurobiología, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Calzada México-Xochimilco No. 101, Col. San Lorenzo-Huipulco, Mexico City 14370, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: ChulHee Kang and Kenji Hashimoto
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Regulation and Sensing)
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Abstract

In adulthood, differentiation of precursor cells into neurons continues in several brain structures as well as in the olfactory neuroepithelium. Isolated precursors allow the study of the neurodevelopmental process in vitro. The aim of this work was to determine whether the expression of functional Voltage-Activated Ca2+ Channels (VACC) is dependent on the neurodevelopmental stage in neuronal cells obtained from the human olfactory epithelium of a single healthy donor. The presence of channel-forming proteins in Olfactory Sensory Neurons (OSN) was demonstrated by immunofluorescent labeling, and VACC functioning was assessed by microfluorometry and the patch-clamp technique. VACC were immunodetected only in OSN. Mature neurons responded to forskolin with a five-fold increase in Ca2+. By contrast, in precursor cells, a subtle response was observed. The involvement of VACC in the precursors’ response was discarded for the absence of transmembrane inward Ca2+ movement evoked by step depolarizations. Data suggest differential expression of VACC in neuronal cells depending on their developmental stage and also that the expression of these channels is acquired by OSN during maturation, to enable specialized functions such as ion movement triggered by membrane depolarization. The results support that VACC in OSN could be considered as a functional marker to study neurodevelopment. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium flux; differentiation process; human precursors; neuronal excitability; voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; neuropsychiatric disorders calcium flux; differentiation process; human precursors; neuronal excitability; voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; neuropsychiatric disorders
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Solís-Chagoyán, H.; Flores-Soto, E.; Reyes-García, J.; Valdés-Tovar, M.; Calixto, E.; Montaño, L.M.; Benítez-King, G. Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels as Functional Markers of Mature Neurons in Human Olfactory Neuroepithelial Cells: Implications for the Study of Neurodevelopment in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 941.

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