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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 856; doi:10.3390/ijms17060856

DNA Damage and Repair in Schizophrenia and Autism: Implications for Cancer Comorbidity and Beyond

1
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, Zürich 8057, Switzerland
2
Cancer Research UK and Medical Research Council Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK
3
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyeva 10, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guillermo T. Sáez
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage and Repair in Degenerative Diseases 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [726 KB, uploaded 1 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are multi-factorial and multi-symptomatic psychiatric disorders, each affecting 0.5%–1% of the population worldwide. Both are characterized by impairments in cognitive functions, emotions and behaviour, and they undermine basic human processes of perception and judgment. Despite decades of extensive research, the aetiologies of schizophrenia and ASD are still poorly understood and remain a significant challenge to clinicians and scientists alike. Adding to this unsatisfactory situation, patients with schizophrenia or ASD often develop a variety of peripheral and systemic disturbances, one prominent example of which is cancer, which shows a direct (but sometimes inverse) comorbidity in people affected with schizophrenia and ASD. Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of cells, the molecular origin of which derives from mutations of a cell’s DNA sequence. To counteract such mutations and repair damaged DNA, cells are equipped with intricate DNA repair pathways. Oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage, and deficient repair of oxidative DNA lesions repair have been proposed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia and ASD. In this article, we summarize the current evidence of cancer comorbidity in these brain disorders and discuss the putative roles of oxidative stress, DNA damage and DNA repair in the aetiopathology of schizophrenia and ASD. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA base excision repair; XRCC1; neurodevelopmental disorders; oxidative DNA damage; oxidative stress; autism; schizophrenia; cancer DNA base excision repair; XRCC1; neurodevelopmental disorders; oxidative DNA damage; oxidative stress; autism; schizophrenia; cancer
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Markkanen, E.; Meyer, U.; Dianov, G.L. DNA Damage and Repair in Schizophrenia and Autism: Implications for Cancer Comorbidity and Beyond. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 856.

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