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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 855; doi:10.3390/ijms17060855

Update on the Management of Pediatric Acute Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis

1
Pediatric Highly Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
2
Respiratory Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charles J. Malemud
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
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Abstract

Acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis are two infections whose frequencies are increasing in pediatric patients. Acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis need to be carefully assessed, diagnosed, and treated to avoid devastating sequelae. Traditionally, the treatment of acute osteoarticular infection in pediatrics was based on prolonged intravenous anti-infective therapy. However, results from clinical trials have suggested that in uncomplicated cases, a short course of a few days of parenteral antibiotics followed by oral therapy is safe and effective. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians an update on recent controversies and advances regarding the management of acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children. In recent years, the emergence of bacterial species resistant to commonly used antibiotics that are particularly aggressive highlights the necessity for further research to optimize treatment approaches and to develop new molecules able to fight the war against acute osteoarticular infection in pediatric patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; anti-infective therapy; osteoarticular infection; osteomyelitis; septic arthritis antibiotics; anti-infective therapy; osteoarticular infection; osteomyelitis; septic arthritis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Castellazzi, L.; Mantero, M.; Esposito, S. Update on the Management of Pediatric Acute Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 855.

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