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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 750; doi:10.3390/ijms17050750

Long-Term Follow-up of HPV Infection Using Urine and Cervical Quantitative HPV DNA Testing

1
Centre for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
2
Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
3
Clinical Microbiology, Antwerp University Hospital, 2650 Edegem, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susanna Esposito
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
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Abstract

The link between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and cervical cancer has been clearly demonstrated. Virological end-points showing the absence of persistent HPV infection are now accepted as a way of monitoring the impact of prophylactic vaccination programs and therapeutic vaccine trials. This study investigated the use of urine samples, which can be collected by self-sampling at home, instead of cervical samples for follow-up of an HPV intervention trial. Eighteen initially HPV DNA-positive women participating in an HPV therapeutic vaccine trial were monitored during a three-year follow-up period. A total of 172 urine samples and 85 cervical samples were collected. We obtained a paired urine sample for each of the 85 cervical samples by recovering urine samples from six monthly gynaecological examinations. We performed a small pilot study in which the participating women used a urine collection device at home and returned their urine sample to the laboratory by mail. All samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time HPV DNA PCR. A good association (κ value of 0.65) was found between the presence of HPV DNA in urine and a subsequent cervical sample. Comparisons of the number of HPV DNA copies in urine and paired cervical samples revealed a significant Spearman rho of 0.676. This correlation was superior in women with severe lesions. The HPV DNA results of the small pilot study based on self-collected urine samples at home are consistent with previous and subsequent urine and/or cervical results. We demonstrated that urine sampling may be a valid alternative to cervical samples for the follow-up of HPV intervention trials or programs. The potential clinical value of urine viral load monitoring should be further investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: urine; HPV DNA; vaccination; HPV testing; self-sampling urine; HPV DNA; vaccination; HPV testing; self-sampling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vorsters, A.; Van Keer, S.; Biesmans, S.; Hens, A.; De Coster, I.; Goossens, H.; Ieven, M.; Van Damme, P. Long-Term Follow-up of HPV Infection Using Urine and Cervical Quantitative HPV DNA Testing. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 750.

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