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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 819; doi:10.3390/ijms17060819

Computational Studies of a Mechanism for Binding and Drug Resistance in the Wild Type and Four Mutations of HIV-1 Protease with a GRL-0519 Inhibitor

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, College of Physics and Electronic Information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023, China
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Academic Editor: Christo Z. Christov
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions)
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Abstract

Drug resistance of mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR) is the most severe challenge to the long-term efficacy of HIV-1 PR inhibitor in highly active antiretroviral therapy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of drug resistance associated with mutations (D30N, I50V, I54M, and V82A) and inhibitor (GRL-0519) complexes, we have performed five molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and calculated the binding free energies using the molecular mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. The ranking of calculated binding free energies is in accordance with the experimental data. The free energy spectra of each residue and inhibitor interaction for all complexes show a similar binding model. Analysis based on the MD trajectories and contribution of each residues show that groups R2 and R3 mainly contribute van der Waals energies, while groups R1 and R4 contribute electrostatic interaction by hydrogen bonds. The drug resistance of D30N can be attributed to the decline in binding affinity of residues 28 and 29. The size of Val50 is smaller than Ile50 causes the residue to move, especially in chain A. The stable hydrophobic core, including the side chain of Ile54 in the wild type (WT) complex, became unstable in I54M because the side chain of Met54 is flexible with two alternative conformations. The binding affinity of Ala82 in V82A decreases relative to Val82 in WT. The present study could provide important guidance for the design of a potent new drug resisting the mutation inhibitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: MD simulation; MM-PBSA; HIV-1 PR; drug resistance MD simulation; MM-PBSA; HIV-1 PR; drug resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, G.; Ma, A.; Dou, X.; Zhao, L.; Wang, J. Computational Studies of a Mechanism for Binding and Drug Resistance in the Wild Type and Four Mutations of HIV-1 Protease with a GRL-0519 Inhibitor. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 819.

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