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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 815; doi:10.3390/ijms17060815

Metabolomic Profiling of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens-Induced Root Nodules Reveals Both Host Plant-Specific and Developmental Signatures

1
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland
2
Institute of Microbiology, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland
3
Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), E-18080 Granada, Spain
4
Agroscope, Institute for Plant Production Sciences, Research Group Molecular Diagnostics, Genomics and Bioinformatics & Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), CH-8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland
5
Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Peter M. Gresshoff and Brett Ferguson
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Signals in Nodulation Control)
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Abstract

Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont, which can grow inside root-nodule cells of the agriculturally important soybean and other host plants. Our previous studies described B. diazoefficiens host-specific global expression changes occurring during legume infection at the transcript and protein level. In order to further characterize nodule metabolism, we here determine by flow injection–time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis the metabolome of (i) nodules and roots from four different B. diazoefficiens host plants; (ii) soybean nodules harvested at different time points during nodule development; and (iii) soybean nodules infected by two strains mutated in key genes for nitrogen fixation, respectively. Ribose (soybean), tartaric acid (mungbean), hydroxybutanoyloxybutanoate (siratro) and catechol (cowpea) were among the metabolites found to be specifically elevated in one of the respective host plants. While the level of C4-dicarboxylic acids decreased during soybean nodule development, we observed an accumulation of trehalose-phosphate at 21 days post infection (dpi). Moreover, nodules from non-nitrogen-fixing bacteroids (nifA and nifH mutants) showed specific metabolic alterations; these were also supported by independent transcriptomics data. The alterations included signs of nitrogen limitation in both mutants, and an increased level of a phytoalexin in nodules induced by the nifA mutant, suggesting that the tissue of these nodules exhibits defense and stress reactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: host-specific nodule metabolism; metabolomics; nifA; nifH transcriptomics; nodule development; rhizobia; symbiosis host-specific nodule metabolism; metabolomics; nifA; nifH transcriptomics; nodule development; rhizobia; symbiosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lardi, M.; Murset, V.; Fischer, H.-M.; Mesa, S.; Ahrens, C.H.; Zamboni, N.; Pessi, G. Metabolomic Profiling of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens-Induced Root Nodules Reveals Both Host Plant-Specific and Developmental Signatures. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 815.

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