The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents
AbstractThe regulation of melanin production is important for managing skin darkness and hyperpigmentary disorders. Numerous anti-melanogenic agents that target tyrosinase activity/stability, melanosome maturation/transfer, or melanogenesis-related signaling pathways have been developed. As a rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis, tyrosinase has been the most attractive target, but tyrosinase-targeted treatments still pose serious potential risks, indicating the necessity of developing lower-risk anti-melanogenic agents. Sugars are ubiquitous natural compounds found in humans and other organisms. Here, we review the recent advances in research on the roles of sugars and sugar-related agents in melanogenesis and in the development of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents. The proposed mechanisms of action of these agents include: (a) (natural sugars) disturbing proper melanosome maturation by inducing osmotic stress and inhibiting the PI3 kinase pathway and (b) (sugar derivatives) inhibiting tyrosinase maturation by blocking N-glycosylation. Finally, we propose an alternative strategy for developing anti-melanogenic sugars that theoretically reduce melanosomal pH by inhibiting a sucrose transporter and reduce tyrosinase activity by inhibiting copper incorporation into an active site. These studies provide evidence of the utility of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents in managing skin darkness and curing pigmentary disorders and suggest a future direction for the development of physiologically favorable anti-melanogenic agents. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Bin, B.-H.; Kim, S.T.; Bhin, J.; Lee, T.R.; Cho, E.-G. The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 583.
Bin B-H, Kim ST, Bhin J, Lee TR, Cho E-G. The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(4):583.Chicago/Turabian Style
Bin, Bum-Ho; Kim, Sung T.; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Lee, Tae R.; Cho, Eun-Gyung. 2016. "The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 4: 583.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.