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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 583; doi:10.3390/ijms17040583

The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents

1
AmorePacific Corporation Research & Deveolopment Center, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-729, Korea
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manickam Sugumaran
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemistry and Mechanisms of Melanogenesis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [993 KB, uploaded 16 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

The regulation of melanin production is important for managing skin darkness and hyperpigmentary disorders. Numerous anti-melanogenic agents that target tyrosinase activity/stability, melanosome maturation/transfer, or melanogenesis-related signaling pathways have been developed. As a rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis, tyrosinase has been the most attractive target, but tyrosinase-targeted treatments still pose serious potential risks, indicating the necessity of developing lower-risk anti-melanogenic agents. Sugars are ubiquitous natural compounds found in humans and other organisms. Here, we review the recent advances in research on the roles of sugars and sugar-related agents in melanogenesis and in the development of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents. The proposed mechanisms of action of these agents include: (a) (natural sugars) disturbing proper melanosome maturation by inducing osmotic stress and inhibiting the PI3 kinase pathway and (b) (sugar derivatives) inhibiting tyrosinase maturation by blocking N-glycosylation. Finally, we propose an alternative strategy for developing anti-melanogenic sugars that theoretically reduce melanosomal pH by inhibiting a sucrose transporter and reduce tyrosinase activity by inhibiting copper incorporation into an active site. These studies provide evidence of the utility of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents in managing skin darkness and curing pigmentary disorders and suggest a future direction for the development of physiologically favorable anti-melanogenic agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: sugar; melanin; anti-melanogenic agent; stress N-glycosylation; osmotic stress sugar; melanin; anti-melanogenic agent; stress N-glycosylation; osmotic stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bin, B.-H.; Kim, S.T.; Bhin, J.; Lee, T.R.; Cho, E.-G. The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 583.

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