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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 574; doi:10.3390/ijms17040574

Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

Núcleo de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Marechal Campos 1468, Vitória, Espírito Santo 29040-090, Brazil
Laboratorio GeMBio, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Calle 43 # 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, Mérida, Yucatán 97200, Mexico
Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural, R. Afonso Sarlo 160, Vitória, Espírito Santo 29052-010, Brazil
Unidad de Tecnología de Alimentos, Centro de Investigación y Asistencia Tecnológica y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco A.C., Ave. Normalistas # 800, Col. Colinas de la Norma, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44270, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Molecular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [9099 KB, uploaded 15 April 2016]   |  


Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: papaya sticky disease; Papaya meleira virus; leaf midribs; laticifer; latex; pathogen-host interaction papaya sticky disease; Papaya meleira virus; leaf midribs; laticifer; latex; pathogen-host interaction

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Magaña-Álvarez, A.; Vencioneck Dutra, J.C.; Carneiro, T.; Pérez-Brito, D.; Tapia-Tussell, R.; Ventura, J.A.; Higuera-Ciapara, I.; Fernandes, P.M.B.; Fernandes, A.A.R. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 574.

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