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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 494; doi:10.3390/ijms17040494

Diagnosing Lung Cancers through Examination of Micro-RNA Biomarkers in Blood, Plasma, Serum and Sputum: A Review and Summary of Current Literature

1
Division of Thoracic Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
2
Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nalini Santanam and William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 11 February 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [212 KB, uploaded 1 April 2016]

Abstract

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, the vast majority of lung cancers are diagnosed at a late stage, when patients become symptomatic leading to dismal, less than 15% five-year survival rates. Evidence has demonstrated that screening computed tomography scans can be used to detect lung cancer, but these scans have high false positive rates. Therefore, there is a continued need for the development of minimally-invasive methods to screen the high risk population and diagnose lung cancer at an earlier, curable stage. One such promising area is the use micro-RNAs. These are short, non-coding RNA molecules that have been shown in previous research to be dysregulated in cancers. This review will focus on the potential use of miRNA levels in various biological fluids (whole blood, plasma, serum, and sputum) and demonstrate their potential utility as screening and diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer. Current research will be analyzed and compared, and future directions in establishing the use of miRNAs for detecting lung cancer will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung cancer; micro-RNA; whole blood; serum; plasma; sputum; early detection; screening; biomarker lung cancer; micro-RNA; whole blood; serum; plasma; sputum; early detection; screening; biomarker
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gyoba, J.; Shan, S.; Roa, W.; Bédard, E.L.R. Diagnosing Lung Cancers through Examination of Micro-RNA Biomarkers in Blood, Plasma, Serum and Sputum: A Review and Summary of Current Literature. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 494.

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