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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 421; doi:10.3390/ijms17030421

MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Theranostics in Prostate Cancer

Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Segrate 20090, Segrate (Mi), Italy
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Academic Editor: Nalini Santanam
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) includes several phenotypes, from indolent to highly aggressive cancer. Actual diagnostic and prognostic tools have several limitations, and there is a need for new biomarkers to stratify patients and assign them optimal therapies by taking into account potential genetic and epigenetic differences. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small sequences of non-coding RNA regulating specific genes involved in the onset and development of PC. Stable miRNAs have been found in biofluids, such as serum and plasma; thus, the measurement of PC-associated miRNAs is emerging as a non-invasive tool for PC detection and monitoring. In this study, we conduct an in-depth literature review focusing on miRNAs that may contribute to the diagnosis and prognosis of PC. The role of miRNAs as a potential theranostic tool in PC is discussed. Using a meta-analysis approach, we found a group of 29 miRNAs with diagnostic properties and a group of seven miRNAs with prognostic properties, which were found already expressed in both biofluids and PC tissues. We tested the two miRNA groups on The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset of PC tissue samples with a machine-learning approach. Our results suggest that these 29 miRNAs should be considered as potential panel of biomarkers for the diagnosis of PC, both as in vivo non-invasive test and ex vivo confirmation test. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; microRNAs; diagnosis; prognosis; therapy; theranostics; biomarkers prostate cancer; microRNAs; diagnosis; prognosis; therapy; theranostics; biomarkers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bertoli, G.; Cava, C.; Castiglioni, I. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Theranostics in Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 421.

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