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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 431; doi:10.3390/ijms17030431

Molecular Insight into Gut Microbiota and Rheumatoid Arthritis

1,2,* , 3,4,* , 1,2,6,* , 1,2,3,4,5,6,* and 1,2,4,5,*
Institute for Advancing Translational Medicine in Bone & Joint Diseases, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China
Institute of Integrated Bioinformedicine and Translational Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China
Guanghua Integrative Hospital, Shanghai 200000, China
Institute of Arthritis Research, Shanghai Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Shanghai 200000, China
Research Group of Bone and Joint Diseases, HKBU Institute of Science & Technology, Haimen 226100, China
Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charles J. Malemud
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Molecular Medicine & Molecular Drug Discovery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [734 KB, uploaded 22 March 2016]   |  


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorder. Gut microbiota play an important role in the etiology of RA. With the considerable progress made in next-generation sequencing techniques, the identified gut microbiota difference between RA patients and healthy individuals provides an updated overview of the association between gut microbiota and RA. We reviewed the reported correlation and underlying molecular mechanisms among gut microbiota, the immune system, and RA. It has become known that gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of RA via multiple molecular mechanisms. The progressive understanding of the dynamic interaction between gut microbiota and their host will help in establishing a highly individualized management for each RA patient, and achieve a better efficacy in clinical practice, or even discovering new drugs for RA. View Full-Text
Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; gut microbiota; molecular mechanism rheumatoid arthritis; gut microbiota; molecular mechanism

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Wu, X.; He, B.; Liu, J.; Feng, H.; Ma, Y.; Li, D.; Guo, B.; Liang, C.; Dang, L.; Wang, L.; Tian, J.; Zhu, H.; Xiao, L.; Lu, C.; Lu, A.; Zhang, G. Molecular Insight into Gut Microbiota and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 431.

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