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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 430; doi:10.3390/ijms17030430

Koumine Attenuates Lipopolysaccaride-Stimulated Inflammation in RAW264.7 Macrophages, Coincidentally Associated with Inhibition of NF-κB, ERK and p38 Pathways

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Hunan Co-Innovation Center for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients, Changsha 410128, China
Department of Animal Management, College of Veterinary Science and Medicine, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija 3120, Philippines
Department of Hunan Agricultural Product Processing Institute, Changsha 410128, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Terrence Piva
Received: 27 December 2015 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5098 KB, uploaded 22 March 2016]   |  


Medicinal herbal plants have been commonly used for intervention of different diseases and health enhancement worldwide. Koumine, an alkaloid monomer found abundantly in Gelsemium plants, can be effectively used as an anti-inflammatory medication. In this study, the mechanisms associated with the preventative effect of koumine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages were investigated. Koumine induced a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, concomitant reduction in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reduction of the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β. Furthermore, koumine decreased the phosphorylation of p65 and inhibited nuclear factor κ Bα (IκBα) proteins, resulting in lower production of nuclear factor (NF)-κB transactivation. Koumine also induced a decrease in the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38 in RAW264 cells. In conclusion, these findings reveal that koumine decreases the productions of pro-inflammatory mediators though the suppression of p38 and ERK MAPK phosphorylation and the inhibition of NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: koumine; inflammation; LPS; NO; iNOS; NF-κB; RAW264.7 macrophages koumine; inflammation; LPS; NO; iNOS; NF-κB; RAW264.7 macrophages

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yuan, Z.; Matias, F.B.; Wu, J.; Liang, Z.; Sun, Z. Koumine Attenuates Lipopolysaccaride-Stimulated Inflammation in RAW264.7 Macrophages, Coincidentally Associated with Inhibition of NF-κB, ERK and p38 Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 430.

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