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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 328; doi:10.3390/ijms17030328

Gleditsia sinensis Thorn Attenuates the Collagen-Based Migration of PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells through the Suppression of α2β1 Integrin Expression

1
Department of Nano-Bioengineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-772, Korea
2
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 440-746, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 18 February 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
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Abstract

Gleditsia sinensis thorns (GST) have been used as a traditional medicine for carbuncles and skin diseases. The purpose of this study was to decide whether non-toxicological levels of water extract of GST (WEGST) are effective in inhibiting the progress of prostate cancer formation and to identify the target molecule involved in the WEGST-mediated inhibitory process of prostate cancer cell migration and in vivo tumor formation. Through the Boyden chamber migration assay, we found that non-toxic levels of WEGST could not attenuate the PC3 migration to the bottom area coated with serum but significantly inhibited PC3 cell migration to the collagen-coated bottom area. We also found that non-toxic levels of WEGST significantly attenuated collagen against adhesion. Interestingly, ectopic administration of WEGST could not affect the expression of α2β1 integrin, which is known as a receptor of collagen. However, when the PC3 cells adhered to a collagen-coated plate, the expression of α2 integrin but not that of β1 integrin was significantly inhibited by the administration of non-toxic levels of WEGST, leading to the inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation. Furthermore, oral administration of WEGST (25 mg/kg/day) significantly inhibited the size of a PC3 cell-xenografted tumor. Taken together, these results suggest a novel molecular mechanism for WEGST to inhibit prostate cancer progression at particular stages, such as collagen-mediated adhesion and migration, and it might provide further development for the therapeutic use of WEGST in the treatment of prostate cancer progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gleditsia sinensis; prostate cancer; α2β1 integrin; collagen; migration Gleditsia sinensis; prostate cancer; α2β1 integrin; collagen; migration
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Ryu, S.; Park, K.M.; Lee, S.H. Gleditsia sinensis Thorn Attenuates the Collagen-Based Migration of PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells through the Suppression of α2β1 Integrin Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 328.

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