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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 280; doi:10.3390/ijms17030280

MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1
Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan
2
Liver Research Project Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan
3
Laboratory for Digestive Diseases, Center for Genomic Medicine, RIKEN, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nalini Santanam and William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [547 KB, uploaded 24 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Serum levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and α-fetoprotein, provide insight into liver function and are used during treatment of liver disease, but such information is limited. In the case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is often not detected until an advanced stage, more sensitive biomarkers may help to achieve earlier detection. Serum also contains microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression. miR-122 is specific to the liver and correlates strongly with liver enzyme levels and necroinflammatory activity, and other microRNAs are correlated with the degree of fibrosis. miR-122 has also been found to be required for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, whereas other microRNAs have been shown to play antiviral roles. miR-125a-5p and miR-1231 have been shown to directly target hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcripts, and others are up- or down-regulated in infected individuals. MicroRNA profiles also differ in the case of HBV and HCV infection as well as between HBeAg-positive and negative patients, and in patients with occult versus active HBV infection. In such patients, monitoring of changes in microRNA profiles might provide earlier warning of neoplastic changes preceding HCC. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA; non-coding RNA; viral hepatitis; inflammation; occult HBV; hepatocellular carcinoma; fibrosis; HBe antigen; α-fetoprotein; biomarker microRNA; non-coding RNA; viral hepatitis; inflammation; occult HBV; hepatocellular carcinoma; fibrosis; HBe antigen; α-fetoprotein; biomarker
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hayes, C.N.; Chayama, K. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 280.

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