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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 173; doi:10.3390/ijms17020173

Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Exosomes and Their Role in Protein Trafficking and Biomarker Potential in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease

1
The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
2
Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 October 2015 / Published: 6 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on Extracellular Vesicles)
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Abstract

Growing evidence indicates that small extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, are prominent mediators of neurodegenerative diseases such as prion, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Exosomes contain neurodegenerative disease associated proteins such as the prion protein, β-amyloid and α-synuclein. Only demonstrated so far in vivo with prion disease, exosomes are hypothesised to also facilitate the spread of β-amyloid and α-synuclein from their cells of origin to the extracellular environment. In the current review, we will discuss the role of exosomes in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease including their possible contribution to disease propagation and pathology and highlight their utility as a diagnostic in neurodegenerative disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; extracellular vesicles; neurodegeneration; protein trafficking; protein misfolding; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; biomarkers exosomes; extracellular vesicles; neurodegeneration; protein trafficking; protein misfolding; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vella, L.J.; Hill, A.F.; Cheng, L. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Exosomes and Their Role in Protein Trafficking and Biomarker Potential in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 173.

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