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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 151; doi:10.3390/ijms17020151

Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation and Neurotrophic Factor-Induced Protection in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease-Lessons from Transgenic Mice

1
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Albertstraße 17, Freiburg 79104, Germany
2
Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine (SGBM), Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Albertstraße 19A, Freiburg 79104, Germany
3
Faculty of Biology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestraße 1, Freiburg 79104, Germany
4
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Neuroanatomy, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Albertstraße 17, Freiburg 79104, Germany
5
Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kurt A. Jellinger
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2016 / Published: 26 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [748 KB, uploaded 26 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by histopathological and biochemical manifestations such as loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons and decrease in dopamine levels accompanied by a concomitant neuroinflammatory response in the affected brain regions. Over the past decades, the use of toxin-based animal models has been crucial to elucidate disease pathophysiology, and to develop therapeutic approaches aimed to alleviate its motor symptoms. Analyses of transgenic mice deficient for cytokines, chemokine as well as neurotrophic factors and their respective receptors in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD have broadened the current knowledge of neuroinflammation and neurotrophic support. Here, we provide a comprehensive review that summarises the contribution of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. Moreover, we highlight the contribution of neurotrophic factors as endogenous and/or exogenous molecules to slow the progression of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons and further discuss the potential of combined therapeutic approaches employing neuroinflammation modifying agents and neurotrophic factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: MPTP; neuroinflammation; microglia; Parkinson’s disease; neurotrophic factors; neuroprotection MPTP; neuroinflammation; microglia; Parkinson’s disease; neurotrophic factors; neuroprotection
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Machado, V.; Zöller, T.; Attaai, A.; Spittau, B. Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation and Neurotrophic Factor-Induced Protection in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease-Lessons from Transgenic Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 151.

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