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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2078; doi:10.3390/ijms17122078

Oxidative Stress in Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies

1
Department of Pediatrics, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410006, China
2
Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510100, China
3
National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan
4
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [613 KB, uploaded 13 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Because of high concentrations of sensitive immature cells, metal-catalyzed free radicals, non-saturated fatty acids, and low concentrations of antioxidant enzymes, the brain requires high levels of oxygen supply and is, thus, extremely sensitive to hypoxia. Strong evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis and progression. Following hypoxia and ischemia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rapidly increases and overwhelms antioxidant defenses. A large excess of ROS will directly modify or degenerate cellular macromolecules, such as membranes, proteins, lipids, and DNA, and lead to a cascading inflammatory response, and protease secretion. These derivatives are involved in a complex interplay of multiple pathways (e.g., inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis) which finally lead to brain injury. In this review, we highlight the molecular mechanism for oxidative stress in HIE, summarize current research on therapeutic strategies utilized in combating oxidative stress, and try to explore novel potential clinical approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; cell damage; therapeutic strategy oxidative stress; hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; cell damage; therapeutic strategy
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Zhao, M.; Zhu, P.; Fujino, M.; Zhuang, J.; Guo, H.; Sheikh, I.; Zhao, L.; Li, X.-K. Oxidative Stress in Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2078.

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