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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2065; doi:10.3390/ijms17122065

Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling

1
Departments of Orthopedic Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
2
Departments of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gopinadhan Paliyath
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mechanism of Action of Food Components in Disease Prevention)
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Abstract

Procyanidins are a family of plant metabolites that have been suggested to mitigate osteoarthritis pathogenesis in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether procyanidins mitigate traumatic injury-induced osteoarthritis (OA) disease progression, and whether procyanidins exert a chondroprotective effect by, at least in part, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Procyanidins (extracts from pine bark), orally administered to mice subjected to surgery for destabilization of the medial meniscus, significantly slowed OA disease progression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that procyanidin treatment reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectors in OA pathogenesis that are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Procyanidin-suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human OA primary chondrocytes. Moreover, components of procyanidins, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B3 exerted effects similar to those of total procyanidins in mitigating the OA-related gene expression profile in the primary culture of human OA chondrocytes in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, these findings suggest procyanidins mitigate OA pathogenesis, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. View Full-Text
Keywords: procyanidins; post-traumatic osteoarthritis; chondroprotection; osteoarthritis; VEGF; nutraceuticals; pine bark extract procyanidins; post-traumatic osteoarthritis; chondroprotection; osteoarthritis; VEGF; nutraceuticals; pine bark extract
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, A.; Leong, D.J.; He, Z.; Xu, L.; Liu, L.; Kim, S.J.; Hirsh, D.M.; Hardin, J.A.; Cobelli, N.J.; Sun, H.B. Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2065.

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