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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2046; doi:10.3390/ijms17122046

Comparative Study of Green Sub- and Supercritical Processes to Obtain Carnosic Acid and Carnosol-Enriched Rosemary Extracts with in Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity on Colon Cancer Cells

Laboratory of Foodomics, Institute of Food Science Research, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Nicolas Cabrera 9, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Foodomics Approaches in Food Science)
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Abstract

In the present work, four green processes have been compared to evaluate their potential to obtain rosemary extracts with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116). The processes, carried out under optimal conditions, were: (1) pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, using an hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent) at lab-scale; (2) Single-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at pilot scale; (3) Intensified two-step sequential SFE at pilot scale; (4) Integrated PLE plus supercritical antisolvent fractionation (SAF) at pilot scale. Although higher extraction yields were achieved by using PLE (38.46% dry weight), this extract provided the lowest anti-proliferative activity with no observed cytotoxic effects at the assayed concentrations. On the other hand, extracts obtained using the PLE + SAF process provided the most active rosemary extracts against both colon cancer cell lines, with LC50 ranging from 11.2 to 12.4 µg/mL and from 21.8 to 31.9 µg/mL for HCT116 and HT-29, respectively. In general, active rosemary extracts were characterized by containing carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) at concentrations above 263.7 and 33.9 mg/g extract, respectively. Some distinct compounds have been identified in the SAF extracts (rosmaridiphenol and safficinolide), suggesting their possible role as additional contributors to the observed strong anti-proliferative activity of CA and CS in SAF extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: rosemary; supercritical fluid extraction (SFE); process intensification; subcritical fluids; supercritical fluids; anti-proliferative; colon cancer cell; HT-29; HCT116 rosemary; supercritical fluid extraction (SFE); process intensification; subcritical fluids; supercritical fluids; anti-proliferative; colon cancer cell; HT-29; HCT116
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-Camargo, A.P.; García-Cañas, V.; Herrero, M.; Cifuentes, A.; Ibáñez, E. Comparative Study of Green Sub- and Supercritical Processes to Obtain Carnosic Acid and Carnosol-Enriched Rosemary Extracts with in Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity on Colon Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2046.

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