Next Article in Journal
Serum Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1 (sFlt-1) Predicts the Severity of Acute Pancreatitis
Next Article in Special Issue
Cell Death in Chondrocytes, Osteoblasts, and Osteocytes
Previous Article in Journal
Ghrelin Attenuates Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice
Previous Article in Special Issue
Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons Induce Autophagic Vacuoles in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2036; doi:10.3390/ijms17122036

The Coexistence of Hypertension and Ovariectomy Additively Increases Cardiac Apoptosis

1
,
2
,
3
,
3
,
4,5,6
,
7,8
,
9,10,11
,
2,12
,
12,†
and
1,2,3,11,13,†,*
1
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2
Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3
School of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai 201203, China
4
Translational Medicine Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5
Graduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
6
Center for Neuropsychiatry, Department of Neurology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
7
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan
8
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
9
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
10
Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
11
Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
12
Department of Sports Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei 11153, Taiwan
13
Department of Occupational Therapy, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony Lemarié
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5667 KB, uploaded 6 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

To investigate whether the coexistence of hypertension and ovariectomy will increase cardiac Fas receptor and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways, histopathological analysis, the TUNEL assay and Western blotting were performed on the excised hearts from three groups of female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which were divided into a sham-operated group (SHR-Sham), bilaterally ovariectomized group (SHR-OVX) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Compared with the WKY group, the SHR-Sham group exhibited decreased protein levels of ERα, ERβ, p-Akt/Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad and decreased further in the SHR-OVX group, as well as protein levels of t-Bid, Bak, Bad, Bax, cytochrome c, activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) increased in the SHR-Sham group and increased further in the SHR-OVX group. Compared with the WKY group, protein levels of Fas ligand, TNF-α, Fas death receptors, TNFR1, FADD and activated caspase-8 (Fas receptor-dependent apoptosis) increased in the SHR-Sham group, but did not increase in the SHR-OVX group, except Fas ligand and TNF-α. The coexistence of hypertension and ovariectomy attenuated the estrogen receptor survival pathway and appeared to additively increase the cardiac mitochondria-dependent, but not the Fas receptor-dependent apoptosis pathway, which might provide one possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in hypertensive postmenopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: menopausal hypertension; heart; caspase; cell death menopausal hypertension; heart; caspase; cell death
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, Y.-Y.; Cheng, Y.-J.; Hu, J.; Chu, L.-X.; Shyu, W.-C.; Kao, C.-L.; Lin, T.-B.; Kuo, C.-H.; Yang, A.-L.; Lee, S.-D. The Coexistence of Hypertension and Ovariectomy Additively Increases Cardiac Apoptosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2036.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top