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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1895; doi:10.3390/ijms17111895

Taking Advantage of Nature’s Gift: Can Endogenous Neural Stem Cells Improve Myelin Regeneration?

1
Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
2
Focus Translational Neuroscience, Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University of Mainz, 55122 Mainz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christoph Kleinschnitz and Sven Meuth
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [515 KB, uploaded 14 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Irreversible functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) are directly correlated to axonal damage and loss. Neurodegeneration results from immune-mediated destruction of myelin sheaths and subsequent axonal demyelination. Importantly, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system, can be replaced to some extent to generate new myelin sheaths. This endogenous regeneration capacity has so far mainly been attributed to the activation and recruitment of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells. As this self-repair process is limited and increasingly fails while MS progresses, much interest has evolved regarding the development of remyelination-promoting strategies and the presence of alternative cell types, which can also contribute to the restoration of myelin sheaths. The adult brain comprises at least two neurogenic niches harboring life-long adult neural stem cells (NSCs). An increasing number of investigations are beginning to shed light on these cells under pathological conditions and revealed a significant potential of NSCs to contribute to myelin repair activities. In this review, these emerging investigations are discussed with respect to the importance of stimulating endogenous repair mechanisms from germinal sources. Moreover, we present key findings of NSC-derived oligodendroglial progeny, including a comprehensive overview of factors and mechanisms involved in this process. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; remyelination; differentiation; cell fate determination; adult neural stem cells; precursor cells; oligodendrocytes; glia; white matter multiple sclerosis; remyelination; differentiation; cell fate determination; adult neural stem cells; precursor cells; oligodendrocytes; glia; white matter
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Akkermann, R.; Jadasz, J.J.; Azim, K.; Küry, P. Taking Advantage of Nature’s Gift: Can Endogenous Neural Stem Cells Improve Myelin Regeneration? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1895.

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