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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1816; doi:10.3390/ijms17111816

The Molecular Pathway of Argon-Mediated Neuroprotection

Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
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Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatra
Received: 13 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2016)
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Abstract

The noble gas argon has attracted increasing attention in recent years, especially because of its neuroprotective properties. In a variety of models, ranging from oxygen-glucose deprivation in cell culture to complex models of mid-cerebral artery occlusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage or retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in animals, argon administration after individual injury demonstrated favorable effects, particularly increased cell survival and even improved neuronal function. As an inert molecule, argon did not show signs of adverse effects in the in vitro and in vivo model used, while being comparably cheap and easy to apply. However, the molecular mechanism by which argon is able to exert its protective and beneficial characteristics remains unclear. Although there are many pieces missing to complete the signaling pathway throughout the cell, it is the aim of this review to summarize the known parts of the molecular pathways and to combine them to provide a clear insight into the cellular pathway, starting with the receptors that may be involved in mediating argons effects and ending with the translational response. View Full-Text
Keywords: argon; neuroprotection; cytoprotection; molecular pathway; mitogen-activated protein kinases; heat shock proteins; cytokines; transcription factor; toll-like receptors argon; neuroprotection; cytoprotection; molecular pathway; mitogen-activated protein kinases; heat shock proteins; cytokines; transcription factor; toll-like receptors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ulbrich, F.; Goebel, U. The Molecular Pathway of Argon-Mediated Neuroprotection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1816.

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