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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1777; doi:10.3390/ijms17111777

Exogenous Melatonin Improves Plant Iron Deficiency Tolerance via Increased Accumulation of Polyamine-Mediated Nitric Oxide

1,2,†
,
1,†
,
1
,
2
,
2,* and 1,*
1
School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
2
Key Laboratory of Bio-organic Fertilizer Creation, Ministry of Agriculture, Anhui Science and Technology University, Bengbu 233100, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 19 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [15640 KB, uploaded 25 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Melatonin has recently been demonstrated to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, the possible involvement of melatonin in Fe deficiency responses and the underlying mechanisms remained elusive in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, Fe deficiency quickly induced melatonin synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Exogenous melatonin significantly increased the soluble Fe content of shoots and roots, and decreased the levels of root cell wall Fe bound to pectin and hemicellulose, thus alleviating Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, melatonin treatments induced a significant increase of nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in roots of Fe-deficient plants, but not in those of polyamine-deficient (adc2-1 and d-arginine-treated) plants. Moreover, the melatonin-alleviated leaf chlorosis was blocked in the polyamine- and NO-deficient (nia1nia2noa1 and c-PTIO-treated) plants, and the melatonin-induced Fe remobilization was largely inhibited. In addition, the expression of some Fe acquisition-related genes, including FIT1, FRO2, and IRT1 were significantly up-regulated by melatonin treatments, whereas the enhanced expression of these genes was obviously suppressed in the polyamine- and NO-deficient plants. Collectively, our results provide evidence to support the view that melatonin can increase the tolerance of plants to Fe deficiency in a process dependent on the polyamine-induced NO production under Fe-deficient conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; iron deficiency; polyamine; nitric oxide (NO); iron remobilization melatonin; iron deficiency; polyamine; nitric oxide (NO); iron remobilization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhou, C.; Liu, Z.; Zhu, L.; Ma, Z.; Wang, J.; Zhu, J. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Plant Iron Deficiency Tolerance via Increased Accumulation of Polyamine-Mediated Nitric Oxide. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1777.

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