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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1778; doi:10.3390/ijms17111778

iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Potentiated and Dormant Antler Stem Cells

1
Institute of Special Wild Economic Animals and Plants, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130112, China
2
State Key Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Special Economic Animals, Changchun 130112, China
3
Sir John Walsh Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, PO Box 647, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Sheehan
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 16 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
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Abstract

As the only known organ that can completely regenerate in mammals, deer antler is of real significance in the field of regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that the regenerative capacity of the antlers comes from the pedicle periosteum and the cells resident in the periosteum possess the attributes of stem cells. Currently, the molecular mechanism of antler regeneration remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the potentiated and dormant antler stem cells using isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling of the peptides, coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to compare the proteome profiles. Proteins were identified by searching against the NCBI nr database and our own Cervine transcriptome database, and bioinformatics analysis was conducted to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Based on this searching strategy, we identified 169 differentially expressed proteins in total, consisting of 70 up- and 99 down-regulated in the potentiated vs. dormant antler stem cells. Reliability of the iTRAQ was confirmed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure the expression of selected genes. We identified transduction pathways through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, such as HIF-1 and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways that play important roles in regulating the regeneration of antlers. In summary, the initiation stage of antler regeneration, a process from dormant to potentiated states in antler stem cells, is regulated by multiple proteins and complicated signal networks. View Full-Text
Keywords: regeneration; antler stem cell; proteome; iTRAQ regeneration; antler stem cell; proteome; iTRAQ
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, Z.; Ba, H.; Zhang, W.; Coates, D.; Li, C. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Potentiated and Dormant Antler Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1778.

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