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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1743; doi:10.3390/ijms17101743

Viral Metagenomics on Blood-Feeding Arthropods as a Tool for Human Disease Surveillance

Robert Koch Institute, Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Seestrasse 10, Berlin 13353, Germany
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Academic Editor: Patrick C. Y. Woo
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Surveillance and monitoring of viral pathogens circulating in humans and wildlife, together with the identification of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), are critical for the prediction of future disease outbreaks and epidemics at an early stage. It is advisable to sample a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates at different temporospatial levels on a regular basis to detect possible candidate viruses at their natural source. However, virus surveillance systems can be expensive, costly in terms of finances and resources and inadequate for sampling sufficient numbers of different host species over space and time. Recent publications have presented the concept of a new virus surveillance system, coining the terms “flying biological syringes”, “xenosurveillance” and “vector-enabled metagenomics”. According to these novel and promising surveillance approaches, viral metagenomics on engorged mosquitoes might reflect the viral diversity of numerous mammals, birds and humans, combined in the mosquitoes’ blood meal during feeding on the host. In this review article, we summarize the literature on vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) techniques and its application in disease surveillance in humans. Furthermore, we highlight the combination of VEM and “invertebrate-derived DNA” (iDNA) analysis to identify the host DNA within the mosquito midgut. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral metagenomics; hematophagous arthropods; blood-feeding arthropods; vector-enabled metagenomics; xenosurveillance; emerging infectious diseases; virus surveillance; mosquitoes viral metagenomics; hematophagous arthropods; blood-feeding arthropods; vector-enabled metagenomics; xenosurveillance; emerging infectious diseases; virus surveillance; mosquitoes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Brinkmann, A.; Nitsche, A.; Kohl, C. Viral Metagenomics on Blood-Feeding Arthropods as a Tool for Human Disease Surveillance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1743.

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