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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1726; doi:10.3390/ijms17101726

Effect of Genetic Polymorphisms and Long-Term Tobacco Exposure on the Risk of Breast Cancer

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, European University, Madrid 28670, Spain
2
School of Doctoral Studies & Research, European University, Madrid 28670, Spain
3
Cátedra Complutense Diagnostic and Innovation, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain
4
Centro de Patología de la Mama-Fundación Tejerina, Madrid 28003, Spain
5
Department of Toxicology and Health Sanitary, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emil Alexov
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Human Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Disease Diagnostics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [238 KB, uploaded 14 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Introduction: Tobacco smoke contains many potentially harmful compounds that may act differently and at different stages in breast cancer development. The focus of this work was to assess the possible role of cigarette smoking (status, dose, duration or age at initiation) and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in tobacco carcinogen metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP2A6) or in DNA repair (XRCC1, APEX1, XRCC3 and XPD) in breast cancer development. Methods: We designed a case control study with 297 patients, 217 histologically verified breast cancers (141 smokers and 76 non-smokers) and 80 healthy smokers in a cohort of Spanish women. Results: We found an association between smoking status and early age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Among smokers, invasive carcinoma subtype incidence increased with intensity and duration of smoking (all Ptrend < 0.05). When smokers were stratified by smoking duration, we only observed differences in long-term smokers, and the CYP1A1 Ile462Ile genotype was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 7.12 (1.98–25.59)). Conclusions: Our results support the main effect of CYP1A1 in estrogenic metabolism rather than in tobacco carcinogen activation in breast cancer patients and also confirmed the hypothesis that CYP1A1 Ile462Val, in association with long periods of active smoking, could be a breast cancer risk factor. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; long-term smoking; CYP1A; DNA repair genes breast cancer; long-term smoking; CYP1A; DNA repair genes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Verde, Z.; Santiago, C.; Chicharro, L.M.; Reinoso-Barbero, L.; Tejerina, A.; Bandrés, F.; Gómez-Gallego, F. Effect of Genetic Polymorphisms and Long-Term Tobacco Exposure on the Risk of Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1726.

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