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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 63; doi:10.3390/ijms17010063

Cardiac Extracellular Vesicles in Normal and Infarcted Heart

1
Department of Molecular Genetic Diagnostics and Cell Biology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Pediatrics, Research Center for Children’s Health, 119991 Moscow, Russia
2
Laboratory of Angiopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 125315 Moscow, Russia
3
Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovative Center, 143025 Moscow, Russia
4
Department of Biophysics, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
5
Faculty of Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
6
School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Suresh Mathivanan and Gregor Drummen
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 18 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on Extracellular Vesicles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [692 KB, uploaded 5 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Heart is a complex assembly of many cell types constituting myocardium, endocardium and epicardium that intensively communicate to each other in order to maintain the proper cardiac function. There are many types of intercellular intracardiac signals, with a prominent role of extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, for long-distant delivering of complex messages. Cardiomyocytes release EVs, whose content could significantly vary depending on the stimulus. In stress, such as hypoxia, inflammation or injury, cardiomyocytes increase secretion of EVs. In hypoxic conditions, cardiac EVs are enriched with angiogenic and prosurvival factors. In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), damaged cardiac muscle cells produce EVs with increased content of angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, mitogenic and growth factors in order to induce repair and healing of the infarcted myocardium. Exosomal microRNAs play a central role in cardiac regeneration. In AMI, circulating cardiac EVs abundantly contain cardiac-specific miRNAs that serve as indicators of cardiac damage and have a big diagnostic potential as AMI biomarkers. Cardioprotective and regenerative properties of exosomes derived from cardiac and non-cardiac stem/progenitor cells are very helpful to be used in cell-free cardiotherapy and regeneration of post-infarct myocardium. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microparticles; cardiomyocyte; acute myocardial infarction; cardiac repair extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microparticles; cardiomyocyte; acute myocardial infarction; cardiac repair
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Chistiakov, D.A.; Orekhov, A.N.; Bobryshev, Y.V. Cardiac Extracellular Vesicles in Normal and Infarcted Heart. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 63.

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