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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 67; doi:10.3390/ijms17010067

Aberrant DNA Methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 in Borderline Personality Disorder

1
Institute for Genetics, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen, Germany
2
Psychiatric Hospital, Psychiatric Services of Thurgovia, CH-8596 Münsterlingen, Switzerland and Department of Psychiatry, Paracelsus Medical University, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kenji Hashimoto and Cesar Borlongan
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 28 December 2015 / Accepted: 29 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
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Abstract

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious psychic disease with a high risk for suicide. DNA methylation is a hallmark for aberrant epigenetic regulation and could be involved in the etiology of BPD. Previously, it has been reported that increased DNA methylation of neuropsychiatric genes is found in the blood of patients with BPD compared to healthy controls. Here, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA promoter region and 5′-external transcribed spacer/5′ETS) and the promoter of the proline rich membrane anchor 1 gene (PRIMA1) in peripheral blood samples of 24 female patients (mean age (33 ± 11) years) diagnosed with DSM-IV BPD and in 11 female controls (mean age (32 ± 7) years). A significant aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 was revealed for BPD patients using pyrosequencing. For the promoter of PRIMA1, the average methylation of six CpG sites was 1.6-fold higher in BPD patients compared to controls. In contrast, the methylation levels of the rDNA promoter region and the 5′ETS were significantly lower (0.9-fold) in patients with BPD compared to controls. Thus, for nine CpGs located in the rDNA promoter region and for four CpGs at the 5′ETS decreased methylation was found in peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Our results suggest that aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 is associated with the pathogenesis of BPD. View Full-Text
Keywords: borderline personality disorder; ribosomal RNA gene; proline rich membrane anchor gene; epigenetics; DNA methylation borderline personality disorder; ribosomal RNA gene; proline rich membrane anchor gene; epigenetics; DNA methylation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Teschler, S.; Gotthardt, J.; Dammann, G.; Dammann, R.H. Aberrant DNA Methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 in Borderline Personality Disorder. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 67.

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