Next Article in Journal
Aire-Overexpressing Dendritic Cells Induce Peripheral CD4+ T Cell Tolerance
Next Article in Special Issue
Molecular Evolution of Aralkylamine N-Acetyltransferase in Fish: A Genomic Survey
Previous Article in Journal
Serum Deprivation-Induced Human GM3 Synthase (hST3Gal V) Gene Expression Is Mediated by Runx2 in Human Osteoblastic MG-63 Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Verification of SNPs Associated with Growth Traits in Two Populations of Farmed Atlantic Salmon
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 40; doi:10.3390/ijms17010040

Vaccination of Silver Sea Bream (Sparus sarba) against Vibrio alginolyticus: Protective Evaluation of Different Vaccinating Modalities

1,2,3,* , 2,†
and
4
1
School of Biological Sciences, Lake Superior State University, Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783, USA
2
Key laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
3
Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology; Qingdao 266071, China
4
Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China
SM, a summer intern student from Qingdao No. 1 High School, Qingdao 266071, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Li Lin
Received: 26 November 2015 / Revised: 12 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 29 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Molecular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1765 KB, uploaded 29 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

In order to develop more effective immunological strategies to prevent vibriosis of farmed marine fish in Hong Kong and southern China, various vaccine preparations including formalin-, phenol-, chloroform- and heat-killed whole cell bacterins and subcellular lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as well as different administration routes, were investigated. Fish immunized with the subcellular LPS exhibited the best protection [Relative Percent of Survival (RPS) = 100], while fish immunized with whole cell bacterins displayed varying degrees of protection (RPS ranged from 28 to 80), in descending order: formalin-killed > phenol-killed > heat-killed > chloroform-killed bacterins. Regarding various administration routes, fish immunized with two intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections exhibited the best protection, and the RPS values were 100 or 85 upon higher or lower doses of pathogenic V. alginolyticus challenges. Both oral vaccination and a combination of injection/immersion trial were also effective, which achieved relatively high protection (the RPS values ranged from 45 to 64.3). However, two hyperosmotic immersions could not confer satisfactory protection, especially when fish were exposed to the severe pathogenic bacteria challenge. Marked elevations of serum agglutinating antibody titer were detected in all immunized fish. Macrophage phagocytosis was enhanced significantly, especially in the fish immunized by formalin- and phenol-killed bacterins through various administration routes. Both adaptive (specific antibody) and innate (phagocytic activity) immunity elicited by different immunization strategies were in parallel with the degree of protection offered by each of them. Although all vaccination trials had no significant effect on the serum hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, the circulating lymphocyte counts were significantly elevated in the fish immunized with LPS, formalin- and phenol-killed bacterins. Serum cortisol levels appeared to be reduced in all immunized fish except the trial of hyperosmotic immersion, which indicated the stressful impact on vaccinated fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sparus sarba; Vibrio alginolyticus; vibriosis; vaccine; vaccination; administration route Sparus sarba; Vibrio alginolyticus; vibriosis; vaccine; vaccination; administration route
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Ma, S.; Woo, N.Y.S. Vaccination of Silver Sea Bream (Sparus sarba) against Vibrio alginolyticus: Protective Evaluation of Different Vaccinating Modalities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 40.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top