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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 139; doi:10.3390/ijms17010139

Cadmium Protection Strategies—A Hidden Trade-Off?

University of Innsbruck, Institute of Zoology, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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Academic Editor: Reinhard Dallinger
Received: 28 November 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Metabolism in Animals)
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Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential transition metal which is introduced into the biosphere by various anthropogenic activities. Environmental pollution with Cd poses a major health risk and Cd toxicity has been extensively researched over the past decades. This review aims at changing the perspective by discussing protection mechanisms available to counteract a Cd insult. Antioxidants, induction of antioxidant enzymes, and complexation of Cd to glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) are the most potent protective measures to cope with Cd-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, protection mechanisms include prevention of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitophagy and metabolic stress, as well as expression of chaperones. Pre-exposure to Cd itself, or co-exposure to other metals or trace elements can improve viability under Cd exposure and cells have means to reduce Cd uptake and improve Cd removal. Finally, environmental factors have negative or positive effects on Cd toxicity. Most protection mechanisms aim at preventing cellular damage. However, this might not be possible without trade-offs like an increased risk of carcinogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; protection; detoxification; antioxidants; chelation; metallothionein; hormesis; oxidative stress; mitochondrial damage; nuclear response factor 2 signaling cadmium; protection; detoxification; antioxidants; chelation; metallothionein; hormesis; oxidative stress; mitochondrial damage; nuclear response factor 2 signaling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sandbichler, A.M.; Höckner, M. Cadmium Protection Strategies—A Hidden Trade-Off? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 139.

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