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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 111; doi:10.3390/ijms17010111

Mechanistic Studies of the Solvolyses of Carbamoyl Chlorides and Related Reactions

1
Department of Chemistry, Wesley College, Dover, DE 19901-3875, USA
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2862, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marie-Christine Bacchus
Received: 21 November 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 15 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution Chemical Kinetics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2865 KB, uploaded 15 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Carbamoyl chlorides are important intermediates, both in the research laboratory and in industrial scale syntheses. The most studied and used are the disubstituted derivatives, incorporating either aryl or alkyl groups (Ar2NCOCl or R2NCOCl). Sometimes, the groups are tied back to give a ring and piperidino- and morpholino-derivatives are commonly encountered. Some studies have been made with two different groups attached. Solvolyses tend to occur at the carbonyl carbon, with replacement of the chloride ion. Studies of both rate and products are reviewed and the solvolysis reactions are usually SN1, although addition of an amine leads to a superimposable bimolecular component. Many of the studies under solvolytic conditions include the application of the extended Grunwald–Winstein equation. The monosubstituted derivatives (ArNHCOCl or RNHCOCl) are less studied. They are readily prepared by the addition of HCl to an isocyanate. In acetonitrile, they decompose to set up and reach equilibrium with the isocyanate (ArNCO or RNCO) and HCl. Considering that the structurally related formyl chloride (HOCOCl) is highly unstable (with formation of HCl + CO2), the unsubstituted carbamoyl chloride (H2NCOCl) is remarkably stable. Recommended synthetic procedures require it to survive reaction temperatures in the 300–400 °C range. There has been very little study of its reactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbamoyl chloride; disubstituted and monosubstituted; Grunwald–Winstein equation; ionization reaction; isocyanate carbamoyl chloride; disubstituted and monosubstituted; Grunwald–Winstein equation; ionization reaction; isocyanate
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D’Souza, M.J.; Kevill, D.N. Mechanistic Studies of the Solvolyses of Carbamoyl Chlorides and Related Reactions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 111.

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