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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 22541-22554; doi:10.3390/ijms160922541

Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

1
Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research, Svanhovd, 9925 Svanvik, Norway
2
Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromsø, 9294 Tromsø, Norway
3
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), 9296 Tromsø, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lee A. Bulla
Received: 20 August 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3349 KB, uploaded 17 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. View Full-Text
Keywords: tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellites; multiplex PCR; Lepidoptera; population genetics tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellites; multiplex PCR; Lepidoptera; population genetics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aarnes, S.G.; Fløystad, I.; Schregel, J.; Vindstad, O.P.L.; Jepsen, J.U.; Eiken, H.G.; Ims, R.A.; Hagen, S.B. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 22541-22554.

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