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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21658-21680; doi:10.3390/ijms160921658

A Novel Nanoprobe for Multimodal Imaging Is Effectively Incorporated into Human Melanoma Metastatic Cell Lines

1
NorLux Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
2
Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162 06 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
4
Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
5
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 140 21 Prague, Czech Republic
6
Institute of Biophysics and Informatics, 1st Medicine Faculty, Charles University, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic
7
Kristian Gerhard Jebsen Brain Tumour Research Centre, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John T. McDevitt
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

To facilitate efficient drug delivery to tumor tissue, several nanomaterials have been designed, with combined diagnostic and therapeutic properties. In this work, we carried out fundamental in vitro and in vivo experiments to assess the labeling efficacy of our novel theranostic nanoprobe, consisting of glycogen conjugated with a red fluorescent probe and gadolinium. Microscopy and resazurin viability assays were used to study cell labeling and cell viability in human metastatic melanoma cell lines. Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS) was done to investigate nanoprobe stability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to study T1 relaxivity in vitro, and contrast enhancement in a subcutaneous in vivo tumor model. Efficient cell labeling was demonstrated, while cell viability, cell migration, and cell growth was not affected. FLCS showed that the nanoprobe did not degrade in blood plasma. MRI demonstrated that down to 750 cells/μL of labeled cells in agar phantoms could be detected. In vivo MRI showed that contrast enhancement in tumors was comparable between Omniscan contrast agent and the nanoprobe. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that a non-toxic glycogen-based nanoprobe may effectively visualize tumor cells and tissue, and, in future experiments, we will investigate its therapeutic potential by conjugating therapeutic compounds to the nanoprobe. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma brain metastasis; nanoprobe; theranostics; magnetic resonance imaging; fluorescence microscopy; high throughput microscopy; fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy; zeta potential melanoma brain metastasis; nanoprobe; theranostics; magnetic resonance imaging; fluorescence microscopy; high throughput microscopy; fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy; zeta potential
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aasen, S.N.; Pospisilova, A.; Eichler, T.W.; Panek, J.; Hruby, M.; Stepanek, P.; Spriet, E.; Jirak, D.; Skaftnesmo, K.O.; Thorsen, F. A Novel Nanoprobe for Multimodal Imaging Is Effectively Incorporated into Human Melanoma Metastatic Cell Lines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 21658-21680.

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