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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21008-21020; doi:10.3390/ijms160921008

Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study

1
Korean Medicine Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
2
Department of Sports and Health Management, Mokwon University, Daejeon 35349, Korea
3
Sports Wellness Center, Yong In University, Gyeonggi-do 17092, Korea
4
Health and Exercise Science Laboratory, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gregor Drummen
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control). Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks). The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; exercise; oxidative stress; retina; treadmill aging; exercise; oxidative stress; retina; treadmill
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, C.-S.; Park, S.; Chun, Y.; Song, W.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, J. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 21008-21020.

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