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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 20033-20049; doi:10.3390/ijms160820033

Extraction of Peptidoglycan from L. paracasei subp. Paracasei X12 and Its Preliminary Mechanisms of Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death in HT-29 Cells

1
School of Food Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150000, China
2
Center of Safety and Evaluation of Drugs, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, No. 24 Heping Road, Harbin 150000, China
3
School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 28 June 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1978 KB, uploaded 24 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

L. paracasei subp. paracasei X12 was previously isolated from a Chinese traditional fermented cheese with anticancer activities and probiotic potential. Herein, the integral peptidoglycan (X12-PG) was extracted by a modified trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method. X12-PG contained the four representative amino acids Asp, Glu, Ala and Lys, and displayed the similar lysozyme sensitivity, UV-visible scanning spectrum and molecular weight as the peptidoglycan standard. X12-PG could induce the production of apoptotic bodies observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X12-PG could significantly induced the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) and the release of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), the two notable hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), with the endoplastic reticulum (ER) damaged and subsequently intracellular [Ca2+] elevated. Our findings implied that X12-PG could induce the ICD of HT-29 cells through targeting at the ER. The present results may enlighten the prospect of probiotics in the prevention of colon cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: peptidoglycan; immunogenic cell death; calreticulin; calcium peptidoglycan; immunogenic cell death; calreticulin; calcium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tian, P.-J.; Li, B.-L.; Shan, Y.-J.; Zhang, J.-N.; Chen, J.-Y.; Yu, M.; Zhang, L.-W. Extraction of Peptidoglycan from L. paracasei subp. Paracasei X12 and Its Preliminary Mechanisms of Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death in HT-29 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 20033-20049.

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