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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19195-19224; doi:10.3390/ijms160819195

Gene Networks Involved in Hormonal Control of Root Development in Arabidopsis thaliana: A Framework for Studying Its Disturbance by Metal Stress

Centre for Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biology, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
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Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants)
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Abstract

Plant survival under abiotic stress conditions requires morphological and physiological adaptations. Adverse soil conditions directly affect root development, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely to be discovered. Plant hormones regulate normal root growth and mediate root morphological responses to abiotic stress. Hormone synthesis, signal transduction, perception and cross-talk create a complex network in which metal stress can interfere, resulting in root growth alterations. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, for which gene networks in root development have been intensively studied, and supply essential terminology of anatomy and growth of roots. Knowledge of gene networks, mechanisms and interactions related to the role of plant hormones is reviewed. Most knowledge has been generated for auxin, the best-studied hormone with a pronounced primary role in root development. Furthermore, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, strigolactones, brassinosteroids and salicylic acid are discussed. Interactions between hormones that are of potential importance for root growth are described. This creates a framework that can be used for investigating the impact of abiotic stress factors on molecular mechanisms related to plant hormones, with the limited knowledge of the effects of the metals cadmium, copper and zinc on plant hormones and root development included as case example. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; copper; zinc; aluminium; phytohormones; lateral root; primary root cadmium; copper; zinc; aluminium; phytohormones; lateral root; primary root
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

De Smet, S.; Cuypers, A.; Vangronsveld, J.; Remans, T. Gene Networks Involved in Hormonal Control of Root Development in Arabidopsis thaliana: A Framework for Studying Its Disturbance by Metal Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 19195-19224.

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