Next Article in Journal
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures
Next Article in Special Issue
Osteoclast Differentiation Is Impaired in a Subgroup of SLE Patients and Correlates Inversely with Mycophenolate Mofetil Treatment
Previous Article in Journal
DeepCNF-D: Predicting Protein Order/Disorder Regions by Weighted Deep Convolutional Neural Fields
Previous Article in Special Issue
Behavioral Deficits Are Accompanied by Immunological and Neurochemical Changes in a Mouse Model for Neuropsychiatric Lupus (NP-SLE)
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 17331-17343; doi:10.3390/ijms160817331

Infections and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Binding or Sparring Partners?

1
Institute of Pediatrics, Università Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
Pediatric Highly Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chak-Sing Lau
Received: 25 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [662 KB, uploaded 29 July 2015]

Abstract

Extensive work on experimental animal models clearly demonstrates that infectious agents can break immunological tolerance to self-antigens and induce autoimmune disorders, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The establishment of a causative link between infections and autoimmunity has been largely studied in a host of clinical studies, proving the role of infectious agents in the induction, as well as in the progression or exacerbation of SLE. However, we are far from a plain understanding of microbial-host interactions in the pathogenesis of SLE. Much serological, molecular and geoepidemiological evidence supports the relationship of different environmental infectious triggers in the inception of SLE-related autoimmune phenomena with adjuvant effects. The promotion of autoimmune responses through bystander activation or epitope spreading via multiple inflammatory pathways has been confirmed in animal models. Different viruses have been implicated in SLE pathogenesis, particularly Epstein-Barr virus, but also parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus and retroviruses. SLE patients usually have an impaired immune response towards Epstein-Barr virus and dysregulation of the viral latency period. Furthermore, the accumulation of endogenous retroviral products might trigger the production of interferon and anti-DNA antibodies. In addition, protozoan infections might even protect from autoimmune processes and rescind an ongoing B cell activation. Herein, we discuss which type of infections induce, exacerbate or inhibit autoimmune disorders and analyze the principal infection-induced immunological mechanisms influencing the development of SLE. View Full-Text
Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; Epstein-Barr virus; parvovirus B19; cytomegalovirus; retrovirus systemic lupus erythematosus; Epstein-Barr virus; parvovirus B19; cytomegalovirus; retrovirus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rigante, D.; Esposito, S. Infections and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Binding or Sparring Partners? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 17331-17343.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top