Next Article in Journal
Identification of New Potential Interaction Partners for Human Cytoplasmic Copper Chaperone Atox1: Roles in Gene Regulation?
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of a Functional Role of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum Isocitrate Lyase in Desiccation Tolerance
Previous Article in Special Issue
Local Controlled Release of Polyphenol Conjugated with Gelatin Facilitates Bone Formation
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 16710-16727; doi:10.3390/ijms160816710

Impact of the β-Lactam Resistance Modifier (−)-Epicatechin Gallate on the Non-Random Distribution of Phospholipids across the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Staphylococcus aureus

1
School of Pharmacy, University College London, London WC1N 1AX, UK
2
Krebs Institute, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paula Andrade
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 July 2015 / Published: 23 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3056 KB, uploaded 24 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

The polyphenol (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECg) inserts into the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and reversibly abrogates resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. ECg elicits an increase in MRSA cell size and induces thickened cell walls. As ECg partially delocalizes penicillin-binding protein PBP2 from the septal division site, reduces PBP2 and PBP2a complexation and induces CM remodelling, we examined the impact of ECg membrane intercalation on phospholipid distribution across the CM and determined if ECg affects the equatorial, orthogonal mode of division. The major phospholipids of the staphylococcal CM, lysylphosphatidylglycerol (LPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and cardiolipin (CL), were distributed in highly asymmetric fashion; 95%–97% of LPG was associated with the inner leaflet whereas PG (~90%) and CL (~80%) were found predominantly in the outer leaflet. ECg elicited small, significant changes in LPG distribution. Atomic force microscopy established that ECg-exposed cells divided in similar fashion to control bacteria, with a thickened band of encircling peptidoglycan representing the most recent plane of cell division, less distinct ribs indicative of previous sites of orthogonal division and concentric rings and “knobbles” representing stages of peptidoglycan remodelling during the cell cycle. Preservation of staphylococcal membrane lipid asymmetry and mode of division in sequential orthogonal planes appear key features of ECg-induced stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: epicatechin gallate; Staphylococcus aureus; membrane phospholipids; membrane asymmetry; beta-lactam susceptibility; bacterial cell division epicatechin gallate; Staphylococcus aureus; membrane phospholipids; membrane asymmetry; beta-lactam susceptibility; bacterial cell division
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rosado, H.; Turner, R.D.; Foster, S.J.; Taylor, P.W. Impact of the β-Lactam Resistance Modifier (−)-Epicatechin Gallate on the Non-Random Distribution of Phospholipids across the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Staphylococcus aureus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 16710-16727.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top