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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 14210-14244; doi:10.3390/ijms160614210

Transcriptional Factors Mediating Retinoic Acid Signals in the Control of Energy Metabolism

1
State Food and Drug Administration Hubei Center for Medical Equipment Quality Supervision and Testing, 666 High-Tech Avenue, Wuhan 430000, China
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Wuhan University, 185 East Lake Road, Wuhan 430071, China
3
Department of Nutrition, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, 1215 West Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lu Qi
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Nutrient Interactions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [927 KB, uploaded 23 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A (VA), is important for many physiological processes including energy metabolism. This is mainly achieved through RA-regulated gene expression in metabolically active cells. RA regulates gene expression mainly through the activation of two subfamilies in the nuclear receptor superfamily, retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). RAR/RXR heterodimers or RXR/RXR homodimers bind to RA response element in the promoters of RA target genes and regulate their expressions upon ligand binding. The development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes is often associated with profound changes in the expressions of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in metabolically active cells. RA regulates some of these gene expressions. Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that status and metabolism of VA regulate macronutrient metabolism. Some studies have shown that, in addition to RARs and RXRs, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor β/δ may function as transcriptional factors mediating RA response. Herein, we summarize current progresses regarding the VA metabolism and the role of nuclear receptors in mediating RA signals, with an emphasis on their implication in energy metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin A; retinoic acid; retinoic acid receptor; retinoid X receptor; hepatic nuclear factor 4α; chicken ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor II; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor β/δ; metabolism vitamin A; retinoic acid; retinoic acid receptor; retinoid X receptor; hepatic nuclear factor 4α; chicken ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor II; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor β/δ; metabolism
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, R.; Wang, Y.; Li, R.; Chen, G. Transcriptional Factors Mediating Retinoic Acid Signals in the Control of Energy Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 14210-14244.

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