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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 14245-14258; doi:10.3390/ijms160614245

Biomineral/Agarose Composite Gels Enhance Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Osteogenic Capability

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery II, Graduate School of Dentistry Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
2
Miyata Dental Clinic, Miyazaki 880-0902, Japan
3
Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974, Japan
4
Division of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 562-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohamed N. Rahaman
Received: 22 March 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2824 KB, uploaded 23 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Hydroxyapatite (HA) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed on an organic polymer of agarose gel is a biomaterial that can be used for bone tissue regeneration. However, in critical bone defects, the regeneration capability of these materials is limited. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts. In this study, we loaded MSCs on HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose gel and cultured them with dexamethasone, which triggers the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. High alkaline phosphatase activity was detected on both the HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels; however, basal activity was only detected on bare agarose gel. Bone-specific osteocalcin content was detected on CaCO3-formed agarose gel on Day 14 of culture, and levels subsequently increased over time. Similar osteocalcin content was detected on HA-formed agarose on Day 21 and levels increased on Day 28. In contrast, only small amounts of osteocalcin were found on bare agarose gel. Consequently, osteogenic capability of MSCs was enhanced on CaCO3-formed agarose at an early stage, and both HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels well supported the capability at a later stage. Therefore, MSCs loaded on either HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose could potentially be employed for the repair of critical bone defects. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; calcium carbonate; agarose; mesenchymal stem cells; tissue engineering; bone; osteogenesis; bone marrow hydroxyapatite; calcium carbonate; agarose; mesenchymal stem cells; tissue engineering; bone; osteogenesis; bone marrow
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Suzawa, Y.; Kubo, N.; Iwai, S.; Yura, Y.; Ohgushi, H.; Akashi, M. Biomineral/Agarose Composite Gels Enhance Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Osteogenic Capability. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 14245-14258.

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